Todorov – Narrative / Narratology Theory

Tsetevan Todorov Todorov - narrative / narratology theory What is it ? Stories are structured like a wheel: An 'equilibrium' where everything is 'normal' A problem occurs The problem is recognised by the characters The characters try to solve the problem A new 'equilibrium' - there is normality again, but it might be a 'new... Continue Reading →

Shirky – End of Audience Theory

    Shirky - end of audience theory. What is it? Audience behaviour has changed due to the internet and the ability for audiences to create their own content at home thanks to the lower cost of technology. This new audience doesn't just consume media, but also produces it - creating the term 'prosumer'. Amateur... Continue Reading →

Jenkins – Fandom Theory

Jenkins - fandom theory. What is it? Fans enjoy media texts so much that they create content based upon the text and form communities around it, which has been made even more possible due to the internet. This is like the 'prosumer' term - a producer and consumer of content. It also links to media... Continue Reading →

Gerbner – Cultivation Theory

Gerber - cultivation theory. What is it? Like water dripping on a rock, it will be slowly eroded. In the same way, when people are constantly exposed to ideas and values in media products, their thoughts and feelings change to reflect them. What is the advanced version? Exposure to television over long periods of time... Continue Reading →

Bandura – Media Effects Theory

What is the theory? An audience can be influenced by media products which can lead to copy cat behaviour. For example, watching a violent film can make someone act in a violent manner. What is the advanced version? The media can influence people directly – human values, judgement and conduct can be altered directly by... Continue Reading →

Livingstone and Lunt – Regulation Theory

Livingstone and Lunt - regulation theory. What is it? Livingstone and Lunt think the needs of a citizen are in conflict with the needs of the consumer, because protection can limit freedom. They noticed that regulating media to protect citizens from harmful content can limit freedom of expression. What is the advanced version? Livingstone and... Continue Reading →

bell hooks – Feminist Theory

bell hooks - feminist theory. What is it? bell hooks believes that white, male, upper class people control the media industries and their values and beliefs are the ones that we see in the vast majority of media products. This means that people who are not white, male and upper class will not see their... Continue Reading →

David Gauntlett – Identity Theory

David Gauntlett - identity theory What is the theory? "Identity is complicated; everyone's got one." Gauntlett believes that while everyone is an individual, people tend to exist within larger groups who are similar to them. He thinks the media do not create identities, but just reflect them instead. What is the advanced version? The media have... Continue Reading →

Stuart Hall – Representation Theory

Stuart Hall - representation theory What is the theory? Stuart Hall's REPRESENTATION theory (please do not confuse with RECEPTION) is that there is not a true representation of people or events in a text, but there are lots of ways these can be represented. So, producers try to 'fix' a meaning (or way of understanding) people or events... Continue Reading →

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